Aflatoxins Level in Persian Pistachios

Aflatoxins Level in Persian Pistachios

There are many things to consider in Persian pistachios sorting and grading. One of these is the level of Aflatoxin in pistachios. Pistachio is one of the nuts fruits that can contaminate with this toxin. 

Aflatoxin types include B1, B2, G1 and G2. Among Aflatoxins, B1 is the most important in terms of both toxicity as well as occurrence. Often, the sum of Aflatoxins (B2 + G1 + G2) is lower than B1. Of course, different countries have defined different range for the permitted level of Aflatoxin, Both aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2). Among countries with a limit of Aflatoxin B1, one country with a limit of 1ppb, 21 countries with a 5ppb limit and also 29 countries with a 8ppb limit. (Source: Iranian Pistachio Association)

 

Aflatoxin levels in different qualities of Persian pistachios

1) Super quality pistachios

Super quality pistachios have the least amount of Aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin B1, which is the most dangerous, is less than 2ppb in super quality pistachios. Also, total Aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) is less than 4ppb.

  •  Aflatoxin B1 less than 2ppb
  • Also total Aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) less than 4ppb

Other specifications of super quality pistachios are presented below. The countries of Singapore, as well as the UK and …, are applying for this type of pistachio.

Physical characteristics of pistachio in shell/ Naturally Opened
 (Allowable tolerances by weight)Superior Grade
Product Code – Anata Nuts Co.PSG
1.Shell Defects (%)
Closed shell and blanks1
Blanks0.5
Adhering hull0.5
Stained shell1
Deformity (incl. opened from bottom)1
Slightly open in-shell5
Total shell defects7
2.       Kernel Defects (%)
Loose kernels1
Pest damage3
Obvious pest damage1
Total kernel defects3
3.        Other Defects (%)
Foreign material0
Foreign material excluding shells0
Non-uniformity of variety1
Non-uniformity of size1.5

 

2. Excellent quality Persian pistachios

Aflatoxin B1 in excellent quality pistachios is less than 8ppb. Also the total Aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) content is below 10ppb. Physical characteristics of excellent quality pistachios are also presented below. EU countries often demand this quality Persian pistachio.

  • Aflatoxin B1 less than 8ppb
  • Also total Aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) less than 10ppb
Physical characteristics of pistachio in shell/ Naturally Opened
 (Allowable tolerances by weight)Excellent Grade
Product Code – Anata Nuts Co.PEG
1.Shell Defects (%)
Closed shell and blanks2
Blanks0.75
Adhering hull0.75
Stained shell1.25
Deformity (incl. opened from bottom)2
Slightly open in-shell10
Total shell defects13
2.       Kernel Defects (%)
Loose kernels2
Pest damage4
Obvious pest damage2
Total kernel defects4
3.        Other Defects (%)
Foreign material0.3
Foreign material excluding shells0.2
Non-uniformity of variety2
Non-uniformity of size1.6

 

3. Standard quality Persian pistachios

The level of Aflatoxin B1 as well as total Aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2) in standard quality pistachios is as follows.

  •  Aflatoxin B1
  • Also total Aflatoxin (B1 + B2 + G1 + G2)
Physical characteristics of pistachio in shell/ Naturally Opened
 (Allowable tolerances by weight)Grade 3
Product Code – Anata Nuts Co.PG3
1.Shell Defects (%)
Closed shell and blanks5
Blanks1
Adhering hull1.5
Stained shell6
Deformity (incl. opened from bottom)6
Slightly open in-shellN/A
Total shell defectsN/A
2.       Kernel Defects (%)
Loose kernels3.5
Pest damage6
Obvious pest damage3
Total kernel defects7
3.        Other Defects (%)
Foreign material0.8
Foreign material excluding shells0.3
Non-uniformity of variety5
Non-uniformity of size2.4

 

Also, the pistachio kernels have been studied in terms of Aflatoxin, fall into the same three categories. Of course, pistachio kernels are made from closed shell pistachios and also Green Peeled pistachio kernels are very low and close to zero. You can also get specifications of the pistachio kernels from the product section.

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